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Computer organization Notes

Machine Language

These are the lowest level programming languages, and are the only languages understood by computers. Machine Language does not needs any translator program. We also call it machine code and it is written as strings of 1's (one) and 0’s (zero). When this sequence of codes is fed to the computer, it recognizes the codes and converts it in to electrical signals needed to run it. Programs of machine language represent exact instructions as they will appear in computer memory. Sometimes, for convenience, these binary codes are also represented in equivalent octal or hexadecimal codes. While easily understood by computers, machine languages are almost impossible for humans to use because they consist entirely of numbers. Programmers, therefore, use either a high level programming language or an assembly language. Every CPU has its own unique machine language. Programs must be rewritten or recompiled, therefore, to run on different types of computer.
It is not an easy language for you to learn because of its difficult to understand. It is efficient for the computer but very inefficient for programmers. It is considered to the first generation language. It is also difficult to debug the program written in this language.
Advantage Machine Language:
1. The program of machine language run very fast and makes efficient use of the computer.
2. Here no translation program is required for the CPU. It is directly understood by the computer.

Disadvantages Machine Language:
1. It is very difficult to program in machine language. The programmer has to know details of hardware to write program.
2. The programmer has to remember a lot of codes to write a program which results in program errors.
3. It is difficult to debug the program.
4. It is hard to modify a program written in the machine language.

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