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Computer organization Notes

Similarities and differences between Machine and Assembly Language:

Similarities between Machine and Assembly Language:
1. Both machine and assembly languages are low level language. These can interact directly with machine. i.e. these can send signals to machine. Both are machine dependent. It means that programs written for one family of processors cannot run on other family of processors. i.e programs are not portable.
2. In spite of these similarities, there are many differences between these two languages as stated below:

Difference between Assembly and Machine Language

Machine Language Assembly Language
Machine language is first generation language. Assembly language is second generation language.
Machine Language is in the form of 0s and 1s. Opcode and operands are written in binary form. Assembly language uses English like mnemonics for opcodes and symbols for operands.
It is difficult for human to understand because of low readability. It is easier to understand as compared to machine language because readability is high.
It is very difficult to find and correct error as everything is in binary form. It is easier to find and correct errors as compared to machine language because it uses mnemonics and symbols.
The binary code cannot be memorized. Memorability is high in Assembly language because it is easy to remember variable name instead of binary code.
No translator is required in case of machine language because it is native language of computer. In case of assembly language, translator is required to convert its code into machine code in the form of bits and bytes. This translator is known as Assembler.
Branches and jumps use actual addresses which are written in binary form. Branches and jumps use labels instead of actual addresses.
There are no pseudo instructions in machine language. Assemblers support many pseudo-instructions
There is only one type of code in machine language. It is the program itself. There are two types of codes in Assembly language. One is the original Assembly language program called source code and the other is the translated copy called object code.

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