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Computer organization Notes

Virtual Memory

In a memory hierarchy system, programs and data are first stored in auxiliary memory. Portions of a program or data are brought into main memory as they are needed by the CPU. Virtual memory is a concept used in some large computer systems that permit the user to construct programs as though a large memory space were available, equal to the totality of auxiliary memory. Each address that is referenced by the CPU goes through an address mapping from the so-called virtual address to a physical address in main memory. Virtual memory is used to give programmers the illusion that they have a very large memory at their disposal, even though the computer actually has a relatively small main memory. A virtual memory system provides a mechanism for translating program-generated addresses into correct main memory locations. This is done dynamically, while programs are being executed in the CPU. The translation or mapping is handled automatically by the hardware by means of a mapping table.
An address used by a programmer will be called a virtual address, and the set of such addresses the address space. An address in main memory is called a location or physical address. The set of such locations is called the memory space. Thus the address space is the set of addresses generated by programs as they reference instructions and data; the memory space consists of the actual main memory locations directly addressable for processing. In most computers the address and memory spaces are identical. The address space is allowed to be larger than the memory space in computers with virtual memory.
In a virtual memory system, programmers are told that they have the total address space at their disposal. Moreover, the address field of the instruction code has a sufficient number of bits to specify all virtual addresses. In our example, the address field of an instruction code will consist of 20 bits but physical memory addresses must be specified with only 15 bits. Thus CPU will reference instructions and data with a 20-bit address, but the information at this address must be taken from physical memory because access to auxiliary storage for individual words will be prohibitively long. (Remember that for efficient transfers, auxiliary storage moves an entire record to the main memory.) A table is then needed, as shown in Figure below, to map a virtual address of 20 bits to a physical address of 15 bits. The mapping is a dynamic operation, which means that every address is translated immediately as a word is referenced by CPU.


The mapping table may be stored in a separate memory as shown in Figure above or in main memory. In the first case, an additional memory unit is required as well as one extra memory access time. In the second case, the table takes space from main memory and two accesses to memory are required with the program running at half speed. A third alternative is to use an associative memory. Consider a computer with an address space of 8K and a memory space of 4K. If we split each into groups of 1K words we obtain eight pages and four blocks as shown in Figure below. At any given time, up to four pages of address space may reside in main memory in any one of the four blocks. The mapping from address space to memory space is facilitated if each virtual address is considered to be represented by two numbers: a page number address and a line within the page. In a computer with 2P words per page, p bits are used to specify a line address and the remaining high-order bits of the virtual address specify the page number. In the example of Figure below, a virtual address has 13 bits. Since each page consists of 210 = 1024 words, the high order three bits of a virtual address will specify one of the eight pages and the low-order 10 bits give the line address within the page. Note that the line address in address space and memory space is the same; the only mapping required is from a page number to a block number.
The organization of the memory mapping table in a paged system is shown in Figure below. The memory-page table consists of eight words, one for each page. The address in the page table denotes the page number and the content of the word gives the block number where that page is stored in main memory. The table shows that pages 1, 2, 5, and 6 are now available in main memory in blocks 3, 0, 1, and 2, respectively. A presence bit in each location indicates whether the page has been transferred from auxiliary memory into main memory. A 0 in the presence bit indicates that this page is not available in main memory. The CPU references a word in memory with a virtual address of 13 bits. The three high-order bits of the virtual address specify a page number and also an address for the memory-page table. The content of the word in the memory page table at the page number address is read out into the memory table buffer register. If the presence bit is a 1, the block number thus read is transferred to the two high-order bits of the main memory address register. The line number from the virtual address is transferred into the 10 low-order bits of the memory address register. A read signal to main memory transfers the content of the word to the main memory buffer register ready to be used by the CPU. If the presence bit in the word read from the page table is 0, it signifies that the content of the word referenced by the virtual address does not reside in main memory. A call to the operating system is then generated to fetch the required page from auxiliary memory and place it into main memory before resuming computation.






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